Μαθαίνοντας την φύση, την κοινωνία, τον εαυτό μας. Μαθαίνοντας ξανά να ζούμε! Ecosophy, the Olympian way.
The reasons for which the Greek Language and the Greek system of writing should once again become international and the official protocol of the European Union.
SBN 960 – 85089 – 2 – 5
VALUE AND WORLD-WIDE
CONTRIBUTION OF THE
AND SYSTEM OF WRITING
1. The reasons for which the Greek Language and the Greek system of writing should once again become international and the official protocol of the European Union.
The Greek Language and the Greek system of writing, as evidenced by scientific sources, a watershed event not only in the history of Western civilization with the Greek’s invention of the alphabet and their system of writing, but also constitute the means of precise expression by the creative human mind and spirit during mankind’s initial great moments in the development of civilization and simultaneously comprise the foundation, base and support for all other European languages.
Specifically, the Greek Language is of fundamental importance to the languages and cultures of the world, not only because it captured and recorded the most cultivated and philosophical thought of the ancient world, but also because it is the base and support not only of the modern Greek Language, but also of a whole list of others, such as Latin and the so called Latin-based languages (Italian, English, French, etc.). There is no language today that does not contain Greek words or derivatives of Greek words, and that is why it is considered the “mother of all languages”. While the people of the world in translating the ancient Greek writings (arts & science, literary, philosophy, epics, poetry, etc.), they imported into their own languages apart from the Greek intellectuality and thought many Greek words as well. Innumerable is the Greek vocabulary that is found in the international arena of languages and dialects. For example, it is estimated that the international English language (i.e., English used globally) contains today in excess of 50,000 words of Greek origin, for example:
Also, the Greek alphabet is of fundamental importance to the world-wide art of writing and culture, not only because it captured and precisely recorded the most cultivated and philosophical thought of the ancient world, which today guides us, as linguist Charles Higounet very rightly observes and remarks, but also and not only because it is the base of the modern Greek art of writing, but also because of a whole list of other writings, such as writings with Latin characters (English, Italian, French, German, etc.), the Slavic writings (Bulgarian, Russian, etc.), as we will see below, consequently the largest percentage of current writings.
The Greek Language and the Greek scriptures are responsible for the birth and development of science and the arts. The Greeks were the first to discover and implement the simple but perfect system of writing, as we will see below, consequently having the capability to not only easily record their experiences, but also by studying them at a later time, they progressed and became first in the letters, arts and sciences: Homer, Hesiod, Herodotus, Thucydides, Heracletus, Democritus, Plato, Aristotle, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, and….and…and…
The first texts of Mathematics, Physics, Astronomy, Law, Medicine, History, Linguistics, etc., were written in the Greek Language and alphabet. The first theatrical works (plays), as well as the Byzantine literary works have been written in the Greek Language.
The Greek Language and Greek writing system were spread internationally first during the period of Alexander The Great and the Hellenistic period that followed. They were also used extensively during the Roman and Byzantine empires, while many Roman men, the aristocracy and well to do citizenry came to Athens to study and learn Greek and the Greek culture.
The Greek Language and the Greek alphabet are those that the most known ancient religions were written and then spread throughout the world. That is to say, that of the Olympian gods and Christianity (New Testament). Most Apostles: Paul, John, Lukas, etc….Just as, many Hebrews had gotten a Greek education, knew the Greek Language and alphabet and for that reason they wrote the Gospels directly in Greek for the purpose of making them known throughout the world.
Also, the New Testament became known throughout the world after its translation from Hebrew into Greek.
The Greek Language and Greek scriptures are those that helped in the decipherment of many of the ancient writings. This happened, because during the period of Alexander The Great and the Hellenistic period that followed, the Greek Language and alphabet were international and many signs, name plates, columns, tombs, etc., were in scripted bilingually, i.e., the column of Rosette in Greek and Egyptian, the epigram ‘Rampad’ in Alep in Greek, Syriac and Arabic, the epigram ‘Arran’ in Aouran in Greek and Arabic, etc.
In regard to the value of the Greek Language:
The Roman statesman and philosopher Cicero said that if the gods spoke they would use the Greek Language.
Johann Wolfgang Goethe, the German writer and philosopher, said that he had heard the Gospel in various languages; however, when he heard it in Greek it seemed as if the Moon had appeared in the sky.
The French Academician and Poet Claude Fauriel (1772-1844) said that the Greek Language assembles the wealth and homogeneity of the German language, the clarity of French, the beauty of Spanish and the musicality of Italian.
The famous blind American writer Ellen Keller compared the preciseness and perfection of expression of the human thought in the Greek Language with the most perfect of the musical instruments, the violin.
The French writer and academic Margarite Yourceyar said: I loved this Greek Language for its robust plasticity, where each of its words certifies its direct and different contact with the truths, and because whatever has been said worthy by man, for the most part has been said in this language.
The Greek poet and academic N Vrettakos said: When I die and I‘m gone to the Heavens, i will speak to the angels in Greek, because they do not know any other language, other than the language of music.
The German poet, historian and philosopher Schiller said: Cursed Greek, you have discovered everything: philosophy, geometry, physics, astronomy….. You have left nothing for us.
“We are all Greeks. Our laws, our literature, our religion, our arts, have their root in Greece (Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1792 – 1822)
In addition to the above, the Greek Language, alphabet and grammar, as we will further see, are nearly perfect and the easiest of all others. Hence, for all of the above, the Greek Language and the Greek system of writing should enjoy world-wide respectability, attention and protection and once again become international and the official protocol of the European Union.
2. ENGLISH SPEECHES WITH GREEK WORDS
The former Prime Minister and professor Xenophon Zolotas had given two speeches in Washington D.C. (on September 26, 1957 and on October 2, 1959), which remain memorable and characterized by the international press as a “Linguistic Feat – Linguistic Epic! ”. The reason for this was not only due to the content of these speeches but also due to the language in which they were given. It is assumed that the language for public speeches is English. In substance however, with the exception of a few conjunctions, articles and prepositions the language is Greek. The attendees that constituted the membership at the conference of the International Monetary Bank for Reconstruction and Growth did not have any problem understanding the uniqueness and magnificence of the text of the speeches given by the Greek professor.
The Speech of September 26, 1957
I eulogize the archons of the Pan ethnic Nomismatic Thesaurus and the Ecumenical Trapeza for the orthodoxy of their axioms methods and policies, although there is an episode of cacophony of the Trapeza with Hellas. With enthusiasm we dialogue and synagonize at the synods of our didymous Organizations in which polymorphous economic ideas and dogmas are analyzed and synthesized. Our critical problems such as the numismatic plethora generate some agony and melancholy. This phenomenon is characteristic of our epoch. But, to my thesis we have the dynamism to program therapeutic practices as a prophylaxis from chaos and catastrophe. In parallel a panethnic unhypocritical economic synergy and harmonization in a democratic climate is basic. I apologize for my eccentric monologue. I emphasize my eucharistiria to you Kyrie, to the eugenic and generous American Ethnos and to the organizations and protagonists of the Amphictyony and the gastronomic symposia.
Ευλογώ τους άρχοντες του Διεθνούς Νομισματικού Ταμείου και την Οικουμενική Τράπεζα για την ορθοδοξία των αξιωμάτων, μεθόδων και πολιτικών, παρά το γεγονός ότι υπάρχει ένα επεισόδιο κακοφωνίας της Τράπεζας με την Ελλάδα. Με ενθουσιασμό διαλεγόμαστε και συναγωνιζόμαστε στις συνόδους των διδύμων Οργανισμών των οποίων τις πολύμορφες οικονομικές ιδέες και δόγματα αναλύουμε και συνθέτουμε. Τα κρίσιμα προβλήματά μας όπως η νομισματική πληθώρα παράγουν κάποια αγωνία και μελαγχολία. Αυτό το φαινόμενο είναι χαρακτηριστικό της εποχής μας. Αλλά, η θέση μου είναι ότι έχουμε τον δυναμισμό να προγραμματίσουμε θεραπευτικές πρακτικές σαν μέτρο προφύλαξης από το χάος και την καταστροφή. Παράλληλα μια παγκόσμια ανυπόκριτως οικονομική συνέργεια και εναρμόνιση σε ένα δημοκρατικό κλίμα είναι βασική. Απολογούμαι για τον εκκεντρικό μου μονόλογο. Εκφράζω με έμφαση την ευχαριστία μου σε εσένα Κύριε, στο ευγενικό και γενναιόδωρο Αμερικανικό Έθνος και στους οργανισμούς και πρωταγωνιστές της Αμφυκτιωνίας και του γαστρονομικού Συμποσίου.»
The Speech of October 2, 1959
It is Zeus’ anathema on our epoch and the heresy of our economic method and policies that we should agonize the Skylla of numismatic plethora and the Charybdis of economic anaemia. It is not my idiosyncrasy to be ironic or sarcastic but my diagnosis would be that politicians are rather cryptoplethorists. Although they emphatically stigmatize numismatic plethora, they energize it through their tactics and practices. Our policies should be based more on economic and less on political criteria. Our gnomon has to be a metron between economic strategic and philanthropic scopes. In an epoch characterized by monopolies, oligopolies, monopolistic antagonism and polymorphous inelasticities, our policies have to be more orthological, but this should not be metamorphosed into plethorophobia, which is endemic among academic economists. Numismatic symmetry should not antagonize economic acme. A greater harmonization between the practices of the economic and nomismatic archons is basic. Parallel to this we have to synchronize and harmonize more and more our economic and nomismatic policies panethnically. These scopes are more practicable now, when the prognostics of the political end economic barometer are halcyonic. The history of our didymous organization on this sphere has been didactic and their gnostic practices will always be a tonic to the polyonymous and idiomorphous ethnical economies. The geneses of the programmed organization will dynamize these policies. Therefore, I sympathize, although not without criticism one or two themes with the apostles and the hierarchy of our organs in their zeal to program orthodox economic and nomismatic policies. I apologize for having tyrannized you with my Hellenic phraseology.
In my epilogue I emphasize my eulogy to the philoxenous aytochtons of this cosmopolitan metropolis and my encomium to you Kyrie, the stenographers.
Είναι «Διός ανάθεμα» στην εποχή μας και αίρεση της οικονομικής μας μεθόδου και της οικονομικής μας πολιτικής το ότι θα φέρναμε σε αγωνία την Σκύλλα του νομισματικού πληθωρισμού και τη Χάρυβδη της οικονομικής μας αναιμίας. Δεν είναι στην ιδιοσυγκρασία μου να είμαι ειρωνικός ή σαρκαστικός αλλά η διάγνωσή μου θα ήταν ότι οι πολιτικοί είναι μάλλον κρυπτοπληθωριστές. Αν και με έμφαση στιγματίζουν τον νομισματικό πληθωρισμό, τον ενεργοποιούν μέσω της τακτικής τους και των πρακτικών τους. Η πολιτική μας θα έπρεπε να βασίζεται περισσότερο σε οικονομικά και λιγότερο σε πολιτικά κριτήρια. Γνώμων μας πρέπει να είναι ένα μέτρο μεταξύ οικονομικής στρατηγικής και φιλανθρωπικής σκοπιάς. Σε μια εποχή που χαρακτηρίζεται από μονοπώλια, ολιγοπώλια, μονοπωλιακό ανταγωνισμό και πολύμορφες ανελαστικότητες, οι πολιτικές μας πρέπει να είναι πιο ορθολογιστικές, αλλά αυτό δεν θα έπρεπε να μεταμορφώνεται σε πληθωροφοβία, η οποία είναι ενδημική στους ακαδημαϊκούς οικονομολόγους. Η νομισματική συμμετρία δεν θα έπρεπε να ανταγωνίζεται την οικονομική ακμή. Μια μεγαλύτερη εναρμόνιση μεταξύ των πρακτικών των οικονομικών και νομισματικών αρχόντων είναι βασική. Παράλληλα με αυτό, πρέπει να εκσυγχρονίσουμε και να εναρμονίσουμε όλο και περισσότερο τις οικονομικές και νομισματικές μας πρακτικές πανεθνικώς. Αυτές οι θεωρήσεις είναι πιο εφαρμόσιμες τώρα, όταν τα προγνωστικά του πολιτικού και οικονομικού βαρομέτρου είναι αλκυονίδων ημερών αίθρια. Η ιστορία της δίδυμης οργάνωσης σε αυτήν την σφαίρα είναι διδακτική και οι γνωστικές τους εφαρμογές θα είναι πάντα ένα τονωτικό στις πολυώνυμες και ιδιόμορφες εθνικές οικονομίες. Η γένεση μιας προγραμματισμένης οργάνωσης θα ενισχύσει αυτές τις πολιτικές. Γι’ αυτόν το λόγο αντιμετωπίζω με συμπάθεια, αλλά όχι χωρίς κριτική διάθεση, ένα ή δύο θέματα με τους αποστόλους της ιεραρχίας των οργάνων μας στον ζήλο τους να προγραμματίσουν ορθόδοξες οικονομικές και νομισματικές πολιτικές. Απολογούμαι που σας τυράννησα με την ελληνική μου φρασεολογία.
Στον επίλογό μου δίνω έμφαση στην ευλογία μου, προς τους φιλόξενους αυτόχθονες αυτής της κοσμοπολίτικης μητρόπολης καθώς και το εγκώμιό μου προς εσάς, κύριοι στενογράφοι
3. GREEK WORDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE (DICTIONARY)
Z. Zeus = Ζευς, zephyr, zeugma, zodiac, zone, zoology…..
The Greek Language
1. Why the Greek Language by a single vote lost,
from once again, becoming the official international language
Because in the middle of the past (20th) century the interdependence of nations in the sectors of economy, arts & science created the need for international diplomacy and communication with a single common language, and because the most widespread up to then languages, such as English, French, German, Chinese, and others are very difficult to learn, certain scholars proposed the reintroduction of Ancient Greek or Latin as the official International language.
However, this idea was rejected because both of these languages are not being spoken and consequently they do not serve the requirements of an emerging world, while others claimed that this problem would be resolved by the so called artificial languages that had begun to appear.
This rejection however, was a big mistake, because:
1) The Greek Language other than its world-wide contribution, it is also the easiest and the only language capable of the most comprehensive transmission of meaning, nearly perfect, as we will see below.
2) The ancient Greek Language even though is not been spoken today, nevertheless its continuity exists through modern Greek, which of course, is as rich and beautiful as the ancient Greek, and perhaps a bit beyond. And we are saying this, because the modern Greek Language has vastly increased its vocabulary through the creation and addition of new words, and also through simplification by the Greek literary scholars of some of the difficult parts of the ancient Greek grammar, such as (suffixes, noun and adjective cases, elimination of orthographic symbols, etc.), and thus the modern Greek Language is simpler and more precise than the ancient Greek.
3) The artificial languages, as we will see below, have been proven to be for simplistic communication and nothing more.
It is also noted, that:
1) According to the assumptions of those supporting the artificial language ‘Esperanto’ (see, encyclopedia “SCIENCE & LIFE”, and others), in 1900 the official international English language was being spoken by roughly 10% of the world population. In 1950 11%, while today decreased to 8.5%. According to some, this reduction is due to the English language and writing being too difficult to learn.
2) It is said that, in a meeting that took place in New York City at the end of the 20th century by renowned economists and arts & science scholars in order to decide which will become for them the official international language, the Greek Language lost by a single vote, cast by the Polish (however of Jewish ancestry) doctor Lazarus Loyntbich Zamenchof (L.L. Zamenchof, 1859 – 1917) or with his philological pseudonym » Doctor Esperanto «, and thus the name of the artificial language Esperanto that he created.
3) The artificial languages were created by selected words that are common in many languages (the Esperanto language is basically based on the vocabulary of languages of Latin origin: English, French, German) and it is assumed with inventive rules of writing and spelling, syntax and conjugation, to facilitate ease of learning. However, these languages are only for simplistic communication, because for a comprehensive transmission of meaning the requirement is a natural language. In addition, the artificial languages are incapable of doing what a natural language appears to be able to do, and because there are very many of them or that they only address specific individuals.
2. The Greek Language has an extremely precise expression
and an easy and unlimited reproductive capability of words.
Observing the words of the Greek Language we see that some are common, simple (single) words while others are compound, i.e.: γράφω, δια-γράφω, εξ-υπ-ακούγεται… and, all to be constituted or made-up (except the: articles, conjunctions and prepositions) from specific component elements, known as: root, prefix, subject, accent (tone), suffix (derivative), and suffix (vocative-case sensitive), whereby each one of them produces a proportional meaning in the word, i.e.: γράφ-ω (= verb, present tense, 1st person), έ-γραφ-ες, (= verb, past tense, 2nd person) , δια-γραφ-ή (compound verb, compound noun, compound adjective)… εξ-έχ-ω, εξ-οχ-ή, έξ-οχ-η..
Stem (subject) is a group of two-character letters (GK. phthongs) which is common in many simple words, as e.g.: the stem subject “γραφ-“ in the words: γραφ-ω, γραφ-ή…The stem subject relates to the sounds of nature and it is either a self-produced sound of some being or processed sound (something like the marble and the statue), i.e., κρα-κρα… > κράζ-ω, τρ… > τρίζω, τρίβω, τριβή… vow.. or bouu… > boul, βους…
Derivative and vocative suffixes are called the specific two-character letters (GK. phthongs) with which we produce the parts of speech (= the nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.) and also conjugate (we form the singular or plural, as well as the nominative case, possessive case, etc), the combination of the two-character letters (GK. phthongs) with which we reveal or imply the part of speech or the signified type, that is to say what we want to express, e.g.: Stem subject γραφ- and words: γράφ-ω, γραφ-έας, γραφ-είς, γραφ-ή, γραφ-ές, γραφ-είο, γραφ-ικ-ός,ή,ο, γραφ-ομεν-ος,η,ο….
Consequently the Greek words have affinity, causal relation and expression, while simultaneously the Greek Language has unlimited possibilities to generate new words.
Contrarily, in the other languages basically there are no constituted component elements of words, but a fixed quantity of words whereby the structure of these words (in reality, syntax by apposition) produces the expression (the oral speech).
Observing for example, the vocabulary of the Chinese language (note, somewhere between the Greek and Chinese languages are the other languages) we see that there are all and all 328 simple and indeclinable monosyllable words (similar to the Greek indeclinable words (conjunctions): με, σε, επί, συν, δια, μετά…), from which with simple composition and a gradual rise-and-decline of the voice in the oral speech crop up the remainder, e.g.: see, the below Chinese words: “πε” = κύπελλο, cup“τσιμ” = χρυσός,η,ο, golden «τσιμ πε» = χρυσό κύπελλο, gold cup, «τσάου» = μέρα, day, «νι τσάου» = καλημέρα, good day, «σιαμ-σουέ» = το άρωμα (το αρωματόνερο), aroma, «σεν» = ο Θεός,God, «σί-λά» = η Ελλάδα, Greece, «τσούν-κούο» = η Κίνα, China, «μέϊ-κό» = η Αμερική, America…
Observing also the various current European languages (English, French, Spanish, etc.) we basically see that all of them also do not have any linguistic productive code of communication, but that they resemble the Chinese language, that is to say they express with the ‘at apposition syntax’ of words, e.g.: in English: I go, go on,… I love, you love, the love, of love… = ελληνικά πάω, προχωρώ, αγαπώ, αγάπη…
Hence, we do not have only 328 words, but many more from which some are generated with suffixes, e.g.: in English: Lovely, loveless, lovelies…. and others are Greek or Latin etc, e.g.: Ευρώπη (Europe), τιτάνας (titan), πρόβλημα (problem)…
And because in the other languages, more or less, the words do not have constituted component elements, the words are usually composed of a few syllables and without significant productive capability, while in contrast the Greek Language in relation to the others has an extremely easy and unlimited productive capability for words.
These are the reason for which:
a) The Greek Language has the richer vocabulary than all other,
b) The other languages are usually borrowing (take) words from other languages (usually from
Greek and Latin) or create words with Greek and Latin constituted component elements of
Because the words of the Greek Language are constituted by concrete and specific component elements (root or subject + suffix, etc.) and at the same time each one of them expresses with logical correctness something concrete for the signified type (the prefix – e – expresses action in the past, the suffixes express the part of speech or the signified type, that is to say if the signified type is active or passive, noun or adjective, masculine or feminine, etc., that is why:
A) The Greek words are expressive and absolutely explicit in their meaning and easy to comprehend. Their meaning becomes clear by simply analyzing their constituted compound elements, i.e.: λύν-ω, έ-λυσ-α, γράφ-ω, γραφέ-ας, γραπτ-ός, γραφ-ική..,
For example, the word “verb” in the Greek Language in addition to other things with the suffix reveals:
a) Which precisely is the subject of this part of speech or sentence (that is to say if the subject is the speaker or the listener or a third person): αγαπώ, it means, I = the speaker = subject, αγαπάς it means, you = the listener = subject, αγαπά, it means, he, she, it = the third person = subject…,
b) Voice (whether we are active or passive): I love (Yannis…) = active voice & I am loved (by Yannis.) = passive voice.
c) Tense (the present, the past and the future) active or passive: λύν-ω = active now & έλυσ-α = active past tense…. This is something which in order to be said in other languages it must be said together with other words, for example: αγαπώ, ας,α = I love, you love, he-she-it loves… αγαπιέμαι = I am loved by John.
B) In the Greek Language there is the capability to form many rhetorical and syntactical types of speech for the purpose of correctly expressing or accentuating (emphasizing) the meaning of the speech, for example: The train is driven by George. = subjunctive syntaxes, Ο Γιώργος οδηγεί το τραίνο. = indicative syntaxes, Ο Γιώργος είναι οδηγός του τραίνου. = imperative syntaxes.
George not only went, but he also hit Aris = George other than he went, he also hit Aris. Instead of simply: George went and hit Aris.
In the Chinese language (somewhere between the Greek and Chinese languages are the other languages), because the words do not have constituted compound elements (suffixes, etc.), they have many meanings or they belong to several parts of speech (they are something like the stems (subjects): γραφ-, καλ-, αγαπ-.. in Greek) and their meaning is arranged:
a) From the intensity of the tone, e.g.: in Chinese: «κιό (very accentuated) = water & “kio»? (less accentuated) = I ask, something similar to the Greek indeclinable words: η & ή (In the indeclinable polysyllabic words the meaning is determined proportionally from which syllable is accented, while in the Greek Language: seldom & never…)
b) From the position that the word in question is in the sentence (or from what other word it has before or after). e.g.: in the English word love, where this word (or any other), if it is said with a pronoun it becomes verb: i love = αγαπώ, if it is said with the article “the” it becomes noun: the love = η αγάπη… if it is said with the word “of” it becomes a noun in the possessive case: of love = the love of, etc.
Hence, that which we reveal with the suffixes, inflection and declension in the Greek Language, it is done in the other languages by placing before or after the word in question one other word.
This is also the reason that:
a) In the Greek Language if we even utter a single word, we become absolutely comprehensible or explicitly clear, for example: αγαπ-ώ, αγάπ-η, αγαπ-άς, αγαπ-ά…
b) In the other languages, in order to become comprehensible or absolutely and explicitly clear, we must speak with complete sentences of the syntactical type: Υ + Ρ + Α or Κ , where Υ = subject, Ρ = verb, Α = object, Κ = predicate: I love you. He loves me. Mary loves books. Love is a good thing.
4. Greek is the most euphonic
and easy to pronounce language
Comparing the vocabulary, the words of the Greek Language with those of other languages we see that Greek words are easier to pronounce and at the same time more beautiful and appealing to the sense of hearing, and that is because:
1) The Greek words are created with constituted compound elements (= the root or the subject + tone (accent) + suffix, etc.) and do not have difficult clusters (that is to say difficult in tone μπ(b), ντ(d), γκ(g), νμ, νρ, νλ…), since the Greek Language through the passage of time has removed or altered them, i.e.: In the Greek words, μπογιατζής > βογιατζής, γκαρίζω > γκάιδαρος > γάιδαρος, Μπενετία (Benetia > Venetia) > Βενετία ή Ενετία, συν-μαθητής > συμμαθητής, συν-λέγω > συλλέγω, συν-ράπτω > συρράπτω, τιμάω > τιμώ, τιμάεις – τιμάς, Αθηνάα > Αθηνά…
In the verbal speech: in Greek, Φέρε τη(ν) μάνα σου και λίγ(α) απ(ό) όλα και θα σ(ε) αγαπώ.
Consequently, the Greek vocabulary (words), the Greek oral speech is a creation that resulted as the timber and the furniture or the Stone and the marble.
Contrarily, in the other languages the words are usually with few syllables and few vowels, something similar that occurs with words in the Greek Language, i.e.: in English: good, max, two, I love, you love…
2) The Greek words are not accented in an accidental or specific syllable from the last syllable (suffix) of words, as it happens with words of other languages resulting in being heard monotonously, but where the part of speech or the type of word determines and harmonizes and thus the tone in Greek helps us with the comprehension of the word while producing beautiful audibility in the verbal speech, e.g., in the Greek polysyllabic words the adjectives are accented in the antepenultimate syllable, the verbs in the penultimate syllable and the nouns in the final syllable: in Greek, έξοχος,η,ο, άδικος,η,ο, κάθετος,η,ο, έ-ξοχη, εξο-χή, ε-ξέ-χω, ε-ξέ-χει,… κά-λος, κα-λός, ….
The French language usually accentuates the words in the final syllable, e.g.: pieta… and the English language in the antepenultimate syllable (or in penultimate syllable, if there is no antepenultimate), e.g.: love, underlet, America…This is the reason for which there is no accentual symbol in the other languages.
SYSTEM OF WRITING
(GREEK GRAMMAR, ORTHOGRAPHY)
1. The Greek grammar
Greek orthography in writing (spelling of words) is produced systematically and according to predefined grammatical rules, contrarily to writing in languages with Latin characters (English, French…) because here the writing is of historical type, that is from Greek or Latin.
In the Greek writing system there is the sound of a letter in the word (Gk. Phthongs) and also the two-character sound alike letters (Gk. Phthongs), which have been previously defined along with specific rules on how they are being distinguished and used.
The Greek letters: O(o) = Ω(ω), Ι(ι) =Υ(υ) = Η(η) = ΕΙ(ει) = ΟΙ(οι) = ΥΙ(υι), E(ε) = AI(αι) are sound-alike (homophone letters) and are used in Greek writing according to specific orthographic rules (i.e., part of speech, gender – masculine or feminine-, singular or plural case, conjugation – nominative, possessive or objective case of the words) in order to reveal the etymology, that is to say the derivation and precise meaning of the written words or to distinguish and differentiate the sound alike (homophone) words. e.g.: καλός & καλώς, καλή & καλεί & καλοί…
2. The Greek alphabet
as in that, not as in: was, an, and
vita, not beta
as in vote, not as in: but, bul
ghama, not gamma
as in y: yet, yataghan,
Not as G in: games, gone…
dhelta, not delta
as in th-ere, th-ese..
not as in th-ing or in dog
as ten, pen..
zhita, not zeta
As S in: rise, not as Z in zet
letters η = i = y, as in ink
as in th-ing, not as in: th-at, th-ese
Letters i = υ = η
Except in αι = ε, σφαίρα = sfera
Lamdha, not lamba
x = ks
as in: hot, not… not as in: come, one,
Σσ & ς
ipsilon, not upsilon
Lettesr υ = η = ι.
Except in: αυ, ευ, ου = av/af, ev/ef, U(u)
As f, ph in: fatal, philosophy
As in: who, chronos..
as in lips
omegha, not omega
Letters o = ω
In the Greek writing system, ancient and modern:
1) The first sound character (Gk. phthong) of the Greek alphabetic words ά-λφα, β-ήτα… reveals which letter this sound character (Gk. Phthong) represents, i.e.: λ-άνδα (“landha”) = the sound character (phthong) [λ] = [l].
This is something that does not occur in writing with Latin characters in (English, French… ). See for example the letter A (a) of the English alphabet. It is pronounced here as e+i and in the words: America, and, tape….., as a, e, ai..
2) In Greek there are the homophone letters, e.g.: O & Ω, Η & Υ & Ι…. This is something that does not exist in any other language.
3) In Greek all letters represent only one sound character (phthong) and it is the same throughout the process of writing. Even if a word is spelled orthographically incorrect, it still is pronounced correctly, i.e:
Greek: «Αύριο θα πάμε εκδρομή στην Αθήνα».
Here the letter A(a) is always pronounced as [α] and not [ε] or [o]…, as it happens in English).
Greek incorrect spelling: <<ίνε καλί γινέκα”
Correct spelling: Είναι καλή γυναίκα.)>>.
This is something that does not occur in the English, French, German and others in their spelling and pronunciation process. See for example the English word: go where the letter O(o) is pronounced as “ou”, and similarly the English word “idea”, pronounced «αϊntία», where we have 4 letters and 6 sound characters (phthongs).
4) In Greek there are letters for all sound characters (phthongs). That is for all the consonants and for all vowels, (see the letters of the Greek spelling system instead of the alphabet).
This is something that does not occur in English or French, German, etc. spelling process. In English, for example, writing the phthongs (sounds of words) <<th-is>> and <<th-ing>> they are written with the same letters, the letters TH(th), but in Greek spelling there are two distinctly different letters, the letters Θ(θ) and Δ(δ, i.e.: Θεός, Δίας… The same occurs and with the letters Γ(γ), etc.
5) Some homophone sound characters (phthongs) consist of a single letter, while others consist of more than one, i.e.: O & Ω, Y & H & I, AI & ai… These homophone letters are used to distinguish and differentiate the type of word, as for examples: λίρα & λύρα, καλό & καλώ.. For more information see the homophone letters.
In this situation, in English spelling some homophone words have useless (not pronounced) letters to differentiate from each other, as for examples: to & t(w)o & to(o), rit(e) & (w)rit(e) & ri(g)t(h. Similarly:sent & cent & scent, pare & pair & pear, boy & buoy, no & know, sail & sale, grown & groan, war & wore, side & sighed, made & maid, night & knight, soared & surd, hole & whole, morning & mourning …..
6) In Greek, all spelling of words is done through the sound characters (phthongs). All the letters in the Greek spelling of words are pronounced the same throughout the written content of words, except the letter Y(υ) in:AΥ(αυ), ΕΥ(ευ), ΥΙ(υι), OY(oy)… i.e.:
Greek spelling: Σήμερα είναι Κυριακή και εμείς δεν έχουμε σχολείο. (Here the letter a is always pronounced as a, the letter e as e… etc).
Pronunciation: Simera ine kiriaki ke emis then ehume sxolio.
Meaning: Today is Sunday and we don’t have school.
This is something that does not occur in English or French, German… written word. For example, in the English words: go, come, one, more, to… where the letter O(o) is pronounced sometimes “o” and sometimes “u” or “a” or “ou”,…
7) In English the sound letter (phthong) U(u) is written with the two digit letter OY(oυ) = U(u).
8) The letter H(h) is pronounced «h, ch, wh» as in «Bach, home, who”… Similarly «ch» in «chair, Christ”
9) The Greek letters: B(β), Γ(γ), Δ(δ) are different from the Latin Β(b), D(d), G(g) = MP(mp) NT(nt) NC(nc). The Latin letters B(b), D(d), G(g) are abbreviations of the Greek MP(μπ), NT(ντ), ΓK(γκ). In Latin spelling, we place the letters MP(mp), NT(nt), NK(nk/nc) in the compound words and the letters B(b), D(d), G(g) in the simple words: com-plex > complex & Babylon, con-tact & dactyl, in-correctly, Booboo = μπουμπού, Goal = γκολ, double = νταμπλ.
10) The Greek letter sigma Σ(s,σ) has two distinct shapes. When written at the end of a word, it is written like this:Σ(ς). If it occurs anywhere else within a word, it is written like this: Σ(σ). στύλος = ΣΤΥΛΟΣ, pronounced “stilos”. Whe
11) The Greek letter Y(υ) is pronounced some times as i as in «in» and some times as v or f (for more on this see below).
12) In Greek spelling each sound character (phthong) is written with a specific corresponding letter. When we read a written word, each letter is pronounced separately and clearly, that is, all letters are pronounced as they appear in the Greek alphabet: άλφα, βήτα, γάμα…, i.e.: καλό = k(apa) + a(lfa) + l(andha) + ό.
In the Greek word Πατέρας:
We have the phthongs and letters Π,α,τ,ε,ρ,α,ς.
Put the sounds together syllable by syllable:
Π and α = Πα – sounds pa + τ and ε = τε – sounds te + ρ and α and ς = ρας – sounds ras
All together it is «pateras», which means «Father».
In the Greek word Ουρανός:
We have the phthongs and letters ου,ρ,α,ν,ο,ς.
Put the sounds together syllable by syllable:
ου = two-character sound letter = u as in put, Lou,
ρ and a = ρα – sounds ra
ν and ο and ς = νος – sounds nos
All together it is «(o)uranos», which means «sky»
3. The Methodology (techic) of the Greek Writing System
1. In Greek spelling, ancient and modern, there are letters for all the different sound characters (phthongs), and each different sounding character (phthong) is written with a specific letter, as for example the consonant phthong [m] with the letter M(μ), the vowel phthong [a] with the letter A(α) and so on.. (See Letters & phthongs)
You hear the consonant phthong [m] and write the letter M(μ). similarly, you see the letter M (μ) and you write the consonant phthong [m].
You hear or pronounce the word “μάνα” (= mother), which consists of the phthongs (sounds, homophones) “μ-α-ν-α” (= m,a,n,a), and then you write the letters “μάνα” (= m,a,n,a). You see the letters of the word «μάνα» and pronounce the phthongs (sounds, homophones) “μ/ά/ν/α (m/a/n/a)”.
In other words, the word «μάνα» is written this way, because the consonant (phthong) [μ] has been grammatically defined to be written with the letter Μ(μ), the phthong [α] with the letter A(α)….etc. Consequently, the word “μάνα” is being read this way, because the designated letter M (μ) produces the phthong [μ] etc.
English: “I am tailor”
= In Greek it is pronounced and written: «άϊ αμ τέϊλορ»
= using Greek words: Εγώ είμαι ράφτης.
2. In the Greek spelling methodology we always denote the accented syllable by using the accentuation symbol (΄): μη-τέ-ρα. We place the accent symbol (‘) on top of the vowel letter in the stressed syllable. For example in the syllable «μά-» of the word μάνα (= mama, mother). For additional information, see the topic on the «accent symbol».
3. In the Greek spelling methodology there are the homophone (same sound) letters: o & ω = (o), ε & αι = [ ε], η & υ & ι & ει & οι & υι = [ι]… and each word is written with one of these homophones letters according to its etymology (= according to its part of speech and type of word: gender, number, case… and derivation or composition) in order to reveal the meaning of the word and also to distinguish the homophone (same sound) words, i.e.: καλώ & καλό, κουτί & κουτή & κουτοί, φύλο & φύλλο,…
The orthographic rules are as follows:
The suffix (last syllable) of verbs is written with –ω: σήκω, καλώ, φοιτώ, λέγω…
The suffix of adverbs is written with –ω(ς): καλώς, κακώς… παρακάτω, άνω, κάτω…
The suffix (last syllable) of nouns and adjectives feminine gender is written with –η: Καλή, κακή,
The suffix of nouns and adjectives masculine gender with –οs: Καλός, κακός, Νίκος…
The suffix of nouns and adjectives neuter gender with –ο,ι: σύκο, κακό, ελαφρό… τυρί, φιλί…
καλ-ό, σύκ-ο, άπορ-ο, άδικ-ο,…(the suffix of the neuter gender is written with the –ο )
& καλ-ώ, σήκ-ω, απορ-ώ, αδικ-ώ,…(the suffix of the verbs is written with the letter -ω)
In Greek writing, if you see a written word with the letter –ω (as a suffix, last syllable), it signifies that this word is a verb: καλ-ώ, -είς.., with the letter -o it signifies that this word is a neuter noun or adjective: καλ-ό, σύκο.., with the letter -η it signifies that this word is a feminine noun or adjective: καλ-ή, καλ-ής….. etc.
In examining the letters in words we notice that many of them are homophones (similar voice, same sound letters) caused by either phonological variation or their changes or inflection through the passage of time (because of the homophonic suffixes): καλ(έ)-ω > καλώ, καλ(έ)-εις > καλείς, καλ(έ)-ει > καλεί… (= verb, ρήμα) & καλός, καλή, καλό (= adjective, επίθετο ) & καλός > καλοί (plural)…
Moreover, in further examining these same sounding letters in words, we notice that these words don’t belong to the same part of speech or gender or type of words.
In addition, the Greek spelling orthography has for some phthongs more than one letter (see, o & ω, η & υ & ι…), so that by spelling a word in a specific part of speech or type (gender, case, tense, etc.) with some homophone letters we can distinguish and differentiate between the same sounding words and it also helps us in determining the etymology and meaning of the word in question. For instance:
Phonetically: “καλός, καλί, καλίς, καλό..”
= In Greek spellingg (Orthography):
καλώ, καλείς, καλεί… (With –ω, if it is verb)
καλό, καλή, καλής, … (With – ο,η, if it is adjective- neuter or feminine gender)
καλώς (With –ως, if it is adverb) & καλός (with –ος if it is adjective – masculine)
καλή (With –η, if it is singular) & καλοί (with –οι, if it is plural)
The above examples show us that whenever there are no homophone letters, we are not able to know the precise meaning of what we write. Hence, because of the same sounding words we are not able to distinguish the part of speech, whether a word is a noun or verb, masculine or feminine, plural or singular. etcr.
Rules in Greek Grammar/Orthography:
A. Compound words are written according to their component parts (in the simple words), in order to reveal their composition: σύν-θεση, παρά-μετρος,…. As in English: under-stand…
B. Derivative words are written according to their root or to their original word, in order to reveal the root or the original word: Κρήτ-η… (Root word) > κρητ-ικός, κρητ-ική… (derivative words, with the letter –η-) & κρίση, κριτ-ής… (root words) > κριτ-ικός, κριτ-ική… (derivative words, with the letter –ι-)… As in English: stand > standing, love > lovely…
G. Derivatives & compound words are written according to their phonetic variations (phthong variations), in order to reveal the correct pronunciation and the original words:
4. Declinable words are written according to their part of speech and type of word (= type = gender, singular or plural, nominative or possessive or objective case, tense) to indicate:
Masculine gender with –o,η: καλός, σοφός, Νίκος, Μανώλης…
Neuter gender with –o, ι: καλό, σύκο, σοφό… τυρί, φιλί…
The verb with –ω, ει: καλώ, καλεί, καλείς, φοιτώ, αδικώ…
Masculine plural: καλ-οί, κακ-οί
Singular feminine with –η: καλή, καλής, νίκη, τιμή, …
,……………………….. (For more see below.)
Consequently, Greek spelling is phonetic as well as simultaneously etymological. It is writingspelling exactly what we say (pronounce) with the vowels and consonants (phthongs: o, a, t….) and simultaneously what we mean etymologically, part of speech, type (= gender, singular or plural, case or tense and derivation or composition of the word, using accordingly and proportionally) the same sound letters O(ο) & Ω(ω) = [ο], Ε(ε) & ΑΙ(αι) = [ε], Η(η) & Υ(υ) & Ι(ι)… (For more see “homophone letters”).
phonetics: “kalό, sίko, άporo, άdhiko…
& spelling with the Greek characters:
καλ-ό, σύκ-ο, άπορ-ο, άδικ-ο,…, if we mean the neuter gender (the neuter gender is written with the suffix letter –ο )
καλ-ώ, σήκ-ω, απορ-ώ, αδικ-ώ,…, if we mean verbs (verbs are written with the suffix letter -ω).
4. The Greek grammar is the most precise, nearly perfect system in the world
(The only writing system that records the words as an electronic recorder does and beyond!)
Writing may be an ancient human invention, but those that more importantly went a step beyond in perfecting it are the Greeks with the invention of a system and methodology of writing that records the oral speech not only as the recorder does, which may also be accomplished through other systems and methodologies of writing, but they went beyond, etymologically, in order to avoid any misapprehension with the sound-alike words. Specifically, in the Greek system of writing are the following letters and special symbols, which do not exist in any other system of writing, which also, depict the speech not only phonetically, but also etymologically:
1) The capital letters: A, B, Γ … and small letters: α, β, γ…
The small letters: α, β, γ… are not for simplification, (“επισεσυρμένη γραφή”) as it is called in Greek, but were devised in order to point out to the reader that the word that begins with such letter does not signify a principal noun, but a common noun, i.e.: νίκη & Νίκη, κριτικός & Κρητικός, αγαθή & Αγαθή…
The capital letters: Α, Β, Γ… are not the regular letters of the Greek alphabet, as it is said, but sound-alike with the small letters, which were devised in order to point out to the reader the sentences of a topic (in writing the first letter of each sentence) and also to differentiate between the principal and common nouns, i.e.: νίκη & Νίκη, κόκκινος & κ. Κόκκινος…
2) The orthographic symbols (= the apostrophe, the accentual mark and the solvents)
The orthographic symbols are not for the purpose to indicate old prosody (the musicality of the ancient Greek Language), as it is said, but the specific accented pronunciations during a speech, that is to say, the accented and languid syllables, as well as pronunciation with contraction, vowel fusion, etc., e.g.: σ’ όλα & σόλα, μία & μια, θεϊκός & θείος, έξοχη (adjective) & εξοχή (noun), σόλα (παπουτσιού) & σ’ όλα (έκθλιψη) = σε όλα, μία (two syllables) & μια (one syllable with vowel fusion), θεϊκός (ασυναίρετα, το εϊ = δυο φθόγγοι) & θείος (συνηρημένα, το ει = ένας φθόγγος)). Alike: ποίος & ποιος, πότε & ποτέ, σ’ όλα = σε όλα & σόλα, λίγα από όλα & λίγ’ απ όλα…
The letters Η(η), Ω(ω), Υ(υ)… are not letters that depict ancient diphthongs which today coincide with Ι, Ο, as it is falsely claimed by some, but letters that resulted from distortion of scheme (form) of – I (I), O (o) -, for the purpose of creating the sound-alike letters: Ο(ο) & Ω(ω), Η(η) & Υ(υ) & Ι(ι) & ΟΙ(οι)… with which, based upon rules, the etymology becomes clear (conjugation, type, gender, singular, plural, etc.), hence the precise meaning of words (writing for example the female gender with –η, the neutral gender with – I, etc.), and thus we are helped in the comprehension of words and in the differentiation of the sound-alike words, e.g.: κουτί & κουτή & κουτοί, λύρα & λίρα.
Simpler yet, with the sound-alike letters: Ο(ο) & Ω(ω), Η(η) & Υ(υ) & Ι(ι)… we indicate in the suffix the part of conjugation or the part of speech (grammatical type) that the word reveals, writing for example: with –ο,η,ι – the singular case of the nouns and adjectives: καλό, καλή, νίκη, τιμή, σύκο, φιλί,…, with –ω,ει- the present tense of the verbs: καλώ, γελώ, τρέχω, σήκω, καλεί,…. (similarly the remainder parts of speech, numbers, etc.), and the subject or the root or the original word of a derivative, e.g.: κρίνω, κριτής > κριτικός (with –ι) & Κρήτη > Κρητικός (with -η)…συν-μαθητής > συμμαθητής (with two -μμ) & έμεινα (with one -μ)… , so that the reader is helped in the comprehension of words and the differentiation or distinction of the sound-alike words.
As we see from the above examples with the help of the sound-alike letters: Ο(ο) & Ω(Ω), Ε(ε) & ΑΙ(αι), Η(η) & Υ(υ) & Ι(Ι)… , but also the orthographic symbols we are quickly able to distinguish the sound-alike words or we understand whether we are talking about a verb or a noun or adjective, etc., or the genders male, or neuter, or principal, or common name etc. Consequently the letters -Ω, -Η, -Υ- are not leftover ancient diphthongs, as it is claimed by some, but sound-alike letters, for the afore mentioned reasons.
1) The Greeks, with the invention of capital and small letters, as well as orthographic symbols and sound-alike letters, if we pay close attention, we will see that they write (spell) particularly easily not only as the electronic recorder does, but also beyond that. With the recorder there can be misapprehension because of the sound-alike words, while with the Greek alphabet’s writing misapprehension is impossible, because with the Greek spelling we record not only what we say with the two-character letters (phthongs) but also what we mean etymologically (part of speech, type, verb, noun, etc.), with the help of the sound-alike, the capital and small letters. For example: Αγαθή & αγαθή & αγαθοί, σε όλα & σόλα & σ’ όλα, ποία & ποια & πια, κουτί & κουτοί & κουτή, κλίση & κλήση & κλείσει& κλίσει….
2) Because the Greek system of writing records the words as such, precisely as heard and simultaneously depending on their etymology at the moment when we write, going back to the ancient Greek written texts we can see how exactly the Greek words were in each period of evolution of the Greek Language. That is something that can not be done in any other language’s writings, because the other language writings record the words historically (writings with Latin characters: English, French, and others), others ideographically (Chinese, Japanese, and others) and others consonantly (Arabic, Persian, and others).
3) If the Greeks had discovered in spelling only the letters of vowels, as it is claimed by some, it would not be significant (it would only be something simpler), since instead of them in writings that do not have vowels there are indicative symbols that are added, if it is required on or under the consonants that would have vowels for clarification. The significant thing in the history of writing is also the invention of the sound-alike letters (ο & ω, η & ι & ι…) and the invention of orthographic symbols (accentual mark, apostrophe, solvents) and also the invention of defined rules of spelling (orthographic). Clearly, the rules by which in writing the orthographic symbols and the sound-alike letters in words (= to write for example the female gender with –η, the neuter with –ι,ο, the verbs with –ω,ει…) it is very important, because, if these were created by chance, then Greek writing would be very difficult and time-consuming to learn it.
4) In all the languages of the world there are sound-alike words, accented and languid syllables, pronunciation with contraction, vowel fusion, etc. However in the writings of other populations (Indian, etc.) these are not indicated, since there are neither orthographic symbols (accentual mark, apostrophe, etc.) nor sound-alike letters (=: Ω (ω) & Ο (ο), Η( η) & Υ(υ) & Ι (ι)…) nor capital and small letters, with which these would be indicated. In Latin and the current writings with Latin characters (English, French, etc.) there are only the capital and small letters. Consequently all of the other language writings are, more or less, inferior in precision and expression to the Greek Language.
5) Other the diphthongs: οϋ, αϊ, εϊ, οϊ, υϊ = two letters (phthongs), and else the two-character letters: ου, αι, ει, οι, υι = one letter. In writing the diphthongs are distinguished from the two-character letters by the solvents and accentual mark: άι = αϊ, αί = ε.
6) In observing the Greek writing, ancient and modern, we see that the letters are simple and constant in scheme, hence easy to script (draw) and distinct in their reading; and, the words are written with as many different letters as there are different two-character letters in the words, consonants and vowels, which provides the capability of writing any word or any sound, e.g.: ε, α, αέρας, εε, εαα… this capability does not exist in other languages. For example, the letters in the Egyptian language are images of beings and as such there is a need for some form of figurative talent for drawing. In the cuneiform and linear writing the letters have complex schemes which requires a lot of time for familiarization and learning, and also some figurative talent for drawing. In the Indian and Arabic language alphabets the letters are attached to each other, while also they do not have a constant scheme, thus it requires some figurative talent and a lot of time of familiarization and learning.
7) From the sound-alike letters Ο(ο) & Ω(ω), Ε(ε) & ΑΙ(αι), Η(η) & Υ(υ) & Ι(ι) & ΟΙ(οι)…. that have been devised in the Greek alphabet and writing for the reasons afore mentioned, Ω(ω), Η(η) – it is the invention of the Ions and for this reason, obviously, these letters are called Ionic by the other Greeks according to historian Herodotus.
8) Nevertheless, In the Greek alphabet system of writing there is still a need for some small improvements, such as: The two-character letter – OY – (ou) to be written with a single character and be simplified; to reduce the orthographic rules, but with research and study and not at random, in order that writing-spelling to become even easier. Not, for example: οδεύω, κλαδεύω, παύω…, but οδέβω, κλαδέβω, πάβω… Similarly: βράδι (instead βράδυ), μπράντι (instead μπράντυ), (to be written with – ι – just as the other neuter nouns in – ι: τυρί, ψωμί, παιδί…
5. The Greek system of writing is not only the most precise and perfect,
but also the easiest in the world, since it can be learned in 30 minutes!
The Greek system of writing, apart from being the most precise and perfect in the world, as we have seen above, it is the easiest, since the time required to learn it corresponds to the time required in order to learn:
a) the alphabet, that is to say the equivalence to the 20 two-character letters (Gk. phthongs): α ε ο u ι κ γ χ τ δ θ π β φ μ ν λ ρ σ ζ with their corresponding letters, e.g.: Α(α) = [α], ΑΙ(αι) = Ε(ε) = [ε], Ο(ο) = Ω(ω) = [ο], ΟΥ(ου) = [u]… which does not need more than 10 – 20 minutes
b) The rules which are used in the writing of words that require the sound-alike letters: ω & ο, ε & αι, μμ & μ…., as those, of: The verbs with -ω, ει: καλ-ώ είς, εί, σήκ-ω…The feminine gender with -η: καλή,ής, νίκη, τιμή… The neuter gender with ο/ι: καλ-ό, κακό, φυτό… τυρί, ψωμί…., which does not require more than 20 – 30 minutes..
Unless it is learning required for small children or foreigners, who do not know the language, thereby the difficulty is attributed to having to learn the language and not the system of writing, or for teaching optical or empirical of the grammatical type, e.g.: «καλή μάνα» with -η, while «καλοί άνθρωποι» with -οι, «καλό πράγμα» with -ο, while «καλώ τον Άρη» with -ω, «καλός άνθρωπος» with -ο, while «καλώς τον Άρη» with -ω,….
Hence time-consuming learning which is only then is achieved, when the student understands that the writing is dependent upon which part of speech, type and derivation or composition the word is and not with what is stated in the school’s grammar: καλ-ή, with -η, if it is the feminine gender, as all other: νίκη, τιμή…. , καλ-εί, with ει, if it is a verb, as all other: θέλει, λέγει… καλ-ό, with -ο, if it is an adjective , as all other: κακό, σοφό,… καλ-ώ, with -ω, if it is a verb , as all other: λέγω, τιμώ….
Most important observations:
1) The Greek system of writing (spelling) is the easiest in the world, however only if it is taught properly, that is to say teaching the student the alphabet and the defined rules, otherwise it appears like a labyrinth or Chinese writing. And this, because many people, as soon as they see that in the Greek system of writing there are many letters, which even though are different in scheme (shape), they are pronounced the same, immediately they feel lost (swamped) with the thought that it is not possible that they can remember which word is written with what letter and which with another letter etc., and thus abandon their effort to learn it. However, this is a superficial and consequently erroneous evaluation. Certainly the Greek alphabet (writing) has several sound-alike letters: ο & ω, ε & αι, υ & η & ι… and thus it appears difficult and time-consuming to learn it. How can I remember, one would say, which word is written for example with – ω – and which with – o –, which word with – αι – and which with – ε – etc. Moreover, this is for the uninitiated, for those who see superficially the Greek spelling system, since these sound-alike letters are not inserted in the words incidentally or historically, as it is with the orthography of words in writings with Latin characters, but with a few specifically defined rules, as the following: The verbs with -ω,ει,: σήκω, φοιτώ, καλώ, καλεί, καλείς,…. , The neuter nouns with –ο,ι: σύκο, φυτό, καλό, φύλο,… φύλλο, φιλί, …, the feminine nouns with –η: καλή, καλής,.. etc. Therefore, if we remember these rules Greek spelling becomes very easy.
2) In the past Greek spelling was much more difficult, because you had to also remember the orthographic rules for special symbols and accentual marks or to memorize one-by-one the correct spelling (with the proportional special symbols and accentual marks). Today, with the modifications applied by the popular academic linguists, Greek spelling became extremely easy.
3) In Greek and Latin writing, because the letters have one single pronunciation, and even though incorrectly you might write the words, again you correctly pronounce the word and will be understood by another person, for example whether you write “αφτι ίνε κακί σίντροφι” or “αυτύ ήναι κακή σύντροφει” or “αυτοί είναι κακοί σύντροφοι” etc., you are pronouncing the word correctly and the meaning also comes out and is understood correctly.
The only circumstance in which the meaning is lost is if we utter a single word, which also happens to be a sound-alike word (this is something seen in dictionaries, inscriptions and signs), because then even though the pronunciation of the word is correct, the meaning is lost because it is a sound-alike word, e.g.: “αφτί” = αφτί ή αυτί & αυτοί & αυτή. Contrarily, in current day spelling with Latin characters, because of historical spelling, if we do not write orthographically correct the words (according to their established spelling), the meaning is unintelligible, because each written word is like an image that is attributable to a specific accent and meaning, therefore if you diminish the image, it appears unrecognizable. For example, in English the words: to & too & two, while their letters do not depict their correct pronunciation, if we remove or change any of their letters, then these words loose their meaning.
This is also the reason that:
a) In the Greek Language if we even utter a single word, we become absolutely comprehensible or explicitly clear, for example: αγαπ-ώ, αγάπ-η, αγαπ-άς, αγαπ-ά…
b) In the other languages, in order to become comprehensible or absolutely and explicitly clear, we must speak with complete sentences of the syntactical type: Υ + Ρ + Α or Κ, where Υ = subject, Ρ = verb, Α = object, Κ = predicate: I love you. He loves me. Mary loves books. The love is good thing.
Comparing Greek writing
(alphabet and spelling)
with the rest of Europe
1. The falsehood in regard to the difficulty
of the historic Greek system of writing (alphabet and orthography)
According to certain writers, the Greek alphabet and the Greek spelling should be replaced with the Latin alphabet and Latin spelling, because in Greek spelling there are duplicate letters that are phonetically similar, i.e.: ο & ω, ε & αι….which makes it very difficult to remember which word is spelled, e.g. with –o- and which with –ω-, which with –e- and which with –ai-.
Also according to certain writers, the various training and learning issues (dyslexia, illiteracy, etc.) are due to the difficulty in learning what is required by the current alphabets (= Greek and those with Latin characters: English, French, Dutch, and others), because of the etymology or historical spelling and thus they propose their elimination (abolishment), and replacement with a new alphabet which should have only so many letters as there are vocal sounds.
For the Greek alphabet, they say, that there are the sound-alike letters: o and ω, ε & αι….which make it difficult to remember which word is spelled, e.g. with –o- and which with –ω- , which with –e- and which with -ai-…
For Latin based alphabets, they say, that words while pronounced the same are spelled differently, e.g., the English word pronounced “aintia” is spelled idea, while this spelling displays the pronunciation “intea” which thus results in not pointing out the correct pronunciation and requires the student to memorize the spelling for each word, consequently that is something which is very difficult, etc.
However the above-mentioned options contain the following errors:
1) If we only spell the words according to the vocal sounds, that is to say without the sound-alike characters ω, η, υ…, we will not be able to distinguish the sound-alike words in the dictionaries, signs, etc., and in the not syntactically perfect documents, e.g: «κλίσι» = κλήση & κλίση, «αφτί» = αυτοί & αυτή & αυτί..
2) Greek spelling is not historical (see also the book “Untruths about the Greek Language and spelling”, A. Krasanakis), but only the spelling in languages with Latin characters (English, French, Dutch, and others), hence these are difficult to learn and should be abolished, e.g., Greek: idea, Europe, titan… = English: idea, Europe, titan…
In Greek writing, words are spelled with particularly great ease, that is, precisely as they are pronounced and at the same time depending upon their etymology and using defined rules to determine the sound-alike letters: ο & ω, η & ι & υ…so that we may be helped in their understanding (finding the etymology) and the differentiation (distinction) of the sound-alike characters, e.g: καλώ & καλό, καλοί & καλεί & καλοί…
2. THE HISTORICAL WRITINGS: ENGLISH, FRENCH, ETC…
Observing the current writings with Latin characters (English, French, etc…) we see that some words are written as having vocal sound-alike Latin characters, and the remainder, as follows:
1) The words that derive from Greek and Latin are written as if they are optical images, irrelevant if they may be pronounced somewhat differently. i.e:
& English club («κλάμπ»), cup («κάπ»), America, plus («πλας»), imperial («ιμπίριαλ»), line («λάϊν»), double («ντάμπλ»)….
2) A word that sounds like another word adds an additional letter (accidental or according to the thought of whoever established it graphically) and which, even though it is written as such, it is not pronounced as such, i.e., the English word John (pronounced “tzon”), which adds the letter h, because in Hebrew there is the vocal sound – h–: Ioannis = Iochanan.
French: grave (in the singular) &graves (in plural). Here – es is not pronounced, but is added for the differentiation of the plural case rom the vocal sound of the singular case. English: to & t(w)o & to(o), rit(e) & (w)rit(e) & ri(g)t(h).. Here: w, o, w, e, g, h – are not pronounced, but were added for the differentiation of the sound-alike words.
Similarly: sent & cent & scent, pare & pair & pear, boy & buoy, no & know, sail & sale, grown & groan, fought & fort, war & wore, side & sighed, made & maid, night & knight, soared & surd, hole & whole, morning & mourning …..
3) Derivative words are written in the subject topic similarly with their original, that is to say, they maintain their historical spelling, irrelevantly if at times the pronunciation of the derivative word changes because of vocal sound causes (contraction, etc.), e.g., in English the original word volcano (pronounced (“volkeinoun”, a = ei) and the derivative volcanic (pronounced “volcanic”, a = a). Similarly: athlete (“άθλιτ”) > athletic (“αθλέτικ”), busy (“μπάζι») > business (“μπίζνες»), day (“ντέι”) > Sanday (“σάντι”), live («λάϊβ») >living («λίβινκ»)…
It is noted that:
1) The writing (spelling) of a word as described above remains in the same tense even if its pronunciation changes or if the word has two or more different pronunciations, e.g., in French & English while some say, e.g: «de lanton, mpati, son koner, oyat… «, and others say » di lonton mponti, sin koneri, choyat or goyat. » , hence, they are all spelled exactly the same, that is to say: London, body, Sean Coneri, what.
2) In writing and spelling a word can be pronounced one way in a given language and differently in another, e.g., the words: BEAUTE = in English pronounced “mpioyti” and in French “mpote”.
3) With the Greek or Latin orthography there are also spelled the words of other languages (arabic, Jewish, etc.) by way of Greek or Latin, i.e: Greek: algebra, Emmanouil, Daniel…. = English: Algebra, Emmanuel, Daniel….
4) For all of the above reasons writing using the Latin characters:
(1) There is disharmony between spelling and pronunciation. Another words – we pronounce something else than what we write or we see something but pronounce something else. This is the phenomenon whereby for the same letter we have five, six, etc. pronunciations and even to depict syllables and not just one as in Greek and Latin. For example in English, the English words go, one, on, come, to…, where the letter O is pronounced sometimes OOY, other times OYA, A, OY… Similarly with the words: was (goyoz), America (amerika), hand (chent), table (teimpl)…. the letter a = ei = a = e = ouo. Similarly with the words: titan (taitan), prize (praiz), girl (gkerl), pig (pigk), ability (ampiliti)… the letter i = ai = I = e… etc.
In many English words the letters have the same pronunciation as their corresponding Latin, e.g.: Athens (athens), Italy (itali), and in most others the same letters (characters) are impossible to precisely tell how they are pronounced or it is known and understood only if one knows the pronunciation of the entire word.
(2) “Spelling» is the creation for each word of a specific «optical image», which for those who know about writing it constitutes one’s «imagination of an image» in the spelling of each word. This imagined picture is appended in the mind of the writer to the acoustic picture, that is to say, the pronouncement of a given word, as well as to its meaning.
(3) The time required to learn the spelling of words is as much as it is needed by the student to learn one-by-one the spelling of all words, consequently very difficult and time-consuming. Naturally to spell the words as such in another written language, as done, e.g. in English (where most of the words are written as optical images from Latin and Greek) it is much more difficult than to write the words with the Greek vocal sound-alike letters: Ω & Ο, Η & Υ & Ι … whereby, based on defined rules one has to only remember few rules and not one-by-one the spelling of each word.
(4) There is no capability for recording, but also for indicating any pronunciation of a word. In order to indicate the correct pronunciation of words with Latin characters in the various dictionaries – in parallel, are utilized the so called phonetic symbols. That is to say, here we have a type of writing as auxiliary to another writing!!
These are also the reason that many writers, such as (Saussure, and others) seek the abolishment in writing with Latin characters and the establishment of some other alphabet, which would have as many letters as there are vocal sound-alikes. This is however erroneous, because in this type of spelling it is not possible to distinguish the sound-alike words
The singular and best solution to this issue is the establishment of Greek writing (spelling) internationally.
AND THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM
OF WRITING (ALPHABET & SPELLING)
1. In Latin spelling as we know, the words are recorded roughly as in Greek, however, with less orthography. That is to say, that in Latin words are also spelled as if they had vocal sound-alike letters and at the same time they have the etymology of the letters: e & ae, i & y, m & mm…., i.e.: Γραικία (Graikia) > Graecia, Φοινίκια (Foinikia) > Phoenicia, Γραμματική – Grammatica…
Simply, in Latin spelling there are no orthographic special characters, such as (accentual mark, apostrophe, etc.) and the sound-alike letters: Ω Η, ΕΙ, ΥΙ… that is because the Latinos copied the Greek alphabet before they could foresee them – and that is the reason for which Latin is easy to spell, however inferior in capability and precision than Greek. In this alphabet there are no letters for the sound-alike δ, γ, θ, characters, because these characters were not being used much in the Latin language.
2. The current languages with Latin characters, such as today’s international language ‘English’, are etymological (historical) and consequently:
a) They are difficult to learn,
b) They cannot credibly record the oral speech,
c) in order to indicate the precise pronunciation of a word they use the so called “PHONETICS SYMBOLS”.
However, these symbols are too many (about 40, and that is attributed to lack of comprehending as yet the value of orthographic special characters (solvents, accentual mark and apostrophe), hence they are difficult to learn and thus the easier and simpler solution is the utilization of the Greek alphabet, for the following reasons:
A) With only the 20 letters of the Greek alphabet: α, ε, ο, ι, ου = u, τ, δ, θ, π, β, φ, κ, γ, χ, μ, ν, λ, ρ, σ, ζ – We indicate precisely the pronunciation (sound-alike characters) of the words, e.g.: “καλό, ψιλί = good, psili”. This is also the reason that many non-Greek (foreign) dictionaries indicate the pronunciation of English and other words with Greek characters and the orthographic special characters (accentual mark, solvents, etc.) and not with phonetics, writing for example corrosive (pronounced: korooyzib”…), body (mponti), dog (ntogk)…
B) With the capital and small letters: Α(α), Β(β), Γ(γ)…, as well as with the sound-alike letters: Ο(ο) & Ω(ω), Η(η) & Ι(ι) & Υ(υ)…, based upon rules (writing for example, the female gender with –η, the neutral gender with –ο,ι, the verbs with – ω,ει.,etc.), we indicate and record also the precise pronunciation and etymology (conjugation, type, etc.) of the words, thus we are helped in the understanding and differentiation of the sound-alike characters, e.g.: καλό & καλώ, αγαθή & Αγαθή & αγαθοί, ψιλή & ψιλοί & ψηλοί & ψηλή…
Thus, for example the pronunciation of the English sound-alike word “wrait” (= write, right, rite) in Greek each one would be spelled either with a different sound-alike character, e.g. “ράϊτ, ράητ, ράϋτ” or with a different accentual mark for each occasion and not with the addition of an accidental letter or historical, that is to say rite & ri (gh) t & rite…. as in English.
C) With the orthographic special characters (accentual mark, apostrophe, etc.) we indicate the accented and unaccented syllables, the pronunciation without exceptions, vowel fusion, etc., e.g.: “σ’ όλα & σε όλα & σόλα, κάλος & καλός & καλώς, καλώ, μία & μια, θείος & θεϊκός”…
Consequently the Greek system of writing is the one and only that deserves to become international and the official protocol of the European Union.
Of course, because the Greek alphabet and spelling are very easy and precise, its globalization will not only quickly decrease world illiteracy, but will also advance the “Letters, and Arts & Sciences” and thus the world culture.